The present economic system is a patchwork of taxes and subsidies and ideas that have been around since at least the 1800s. Tax upon tax has been added trying to bring control and equality to the system.
The picture here shows just the CATEGORIES of transactions involved and then just the most common. If we are going to create a sustainable way of life, to transform to where we need to go to ensure food and water and a roof for all, we need to make some sweeping changes.
Looking at it like this, it may not be too difficult: We could start by not allowing any poisoning of the commons, and planning a fast phase-out of externalisation in all forms. Putting a tax on what we don’t want, and making the things we do cheap is another strategy.
Trying to be sustainable without reforming the economic system is probably a waste of time, as it presents a compact wall of resistance to any move to sustainability. And it is so complex no-one seems to have a clear of idea of how it works anyway!