This diagram comes from the Swedish Sustainable Economy Foundation http://tssef.se.
In the biomass society, all energy comes from biomass. Nutrients, especially phosphorus, are reclaimed back to the soil.
But all this takes place in the technosphere, where technical “nutrients” make up the infrastructure that provides the systems, tools, machinery etc. The main components comes from outside the biosphere from under the ground, metals, ceramics, stone etc. Once mined, the metals recycle again and again to form part of this infrastructure.
The role of money is to provide a control layer, enabling transactions and proving an extra level of control and measurement.
Creating the circle economy is the aim of economic growth, with the ultimate goal to reach economic maturity.